The main thing to know in a bank failure is that your money is probably safe. If your money is FDIC insured, you probably don’t need to panic.
What Causes Bank Failures?
Banks go under when they are no longer able to meet their obligations. They might be unable to pay the bills, or a bank failure may arise because they can't provide cash when depositors demand it.
What Happens in a Bank Failure?
Most US banks are FDIC insured. If you are not banking at an FDIC insured institution, you're taking a huge risk.
The FDIC insures deposits up to $100,000, so keeping more than that at any bank may put your money at risk. However, it is possible to have more than $100,000 insured at one bank if several people or entities have an interest in the money. For example, retirement accounts and accounts for different family members can increase your protection. Take the time to understand FDIC limits if you have more than $100,000 at the bank.
Note: The FDIC raised the coverage limit to $250,000 per depositor in 2008 as a result of the banking crisis. This increased limit applies until at least December 31st, 2009.
For many customers, a bank failure is a non-event. Customers continue to use the checks, debit cards, and electronic transfer instructions that they used before the bank failure. At some point, customers may eventually get new checks and cards.
The FDIC does not publish a specific timeframe for resolving bank failures. They note that historically they have made funds available within one business day. They try to close banks down on Fridays and get back to "business as usual" by Monday morning. However, circumstances with a given bank failure or with your accounts can slow the process down.
The FDIC's first choice is to create a new bank for seamless operations until your account is sold to another bank. In some cases, this option is not available and they cut you a check for your insured deposits.
Bank Runs and Bank Failures
After a bank failure is announced, there is little reason to make a run on the bank if your assets are insured. If the FDIC has already taken over, your money is no longer held by the weak and failing bank. If you want to get your money out and use a different bank, you can write a check or transfer your money electronically to the new bank.
If you have uninsured deposits at an FDIC insured institution, you may have a problem. The FDIC typically makes insured deposits available immediately after a bank failure. Uninsured deposits may not be available for years. The FDIC has to sell the institution and its assets and see how much money (if any) is left to distribute to creditors.
Sometimes bank branches are destroyed as a result of natural disaster or terrorism. Physical destruction is different from a bank failure. Again, if your accounts are insured the event is most likely just an inconvenience - not something that will completely ruin you.
Avoiding Bank Failures
It is difficult to know which banks will fail. The FDIC does not announce bank takeovers ahead of time. The best course of action is to make sure that you’re observing FDIC limits and not taking any risks.
Some bank rating services may help you avoid bank failures. These services look at banks’ strength, business models, and exposure to various risks. However, some bank failures come out of nowhere and cannot be predicted by outsiders.